ⓘ Philosophy - Dialogical logic, Dualism, cybernetics, Epistemic cultures, Fides quaerens intellectum, Hellenistic philosophy, Toril Moi, Moral rationalism ..

Dialogical logic

Dialogic logic was conceived as a pragmatic approach to the semantics of logic that resorts to concepts of game theory such as "winning a play" and that of "winning strategy". Since dialogical logic was the first approach to the semantics of logic using notions stemming from game theory, Game Theoretical Semantics GTS and dialogical logic are often conflated under the term Game Semantics. However, as discussed below, though GTS and dialogical logic are both rooted in a game-theoretical perspective, in fact, they have quite different philosophical and logical background. Nowadays it has bee ...

Dualism (cybernetics)

Dualism in cybernetics refers to systems or problems in which one or more intelligent adversaries attempt to exploit the weaknesses of the investigator. Examples could include a game-playing opponent, adversarial law, evolutionary systems of predator/parasite and prey/host, or politics/enslavement attempts.

Epistemic cultures

Epistemic cultures are a concept developed in the nineties by anthropologist Karin Knorr Cetina in her book Epistemic Cultures, how the sciences make knowledge. Opposed to a monist vision of scientific activity, Knorr Cetina defines the concept of epistemic cultures as a diversity of scientific activities according to different scientific fields, not only in methods and tools, but also in types of reasonings, ways to establish evidence, and relationships between theory and empiry. Knorr Cetinas work is seminal in questioning the so-called unity of science.

Fides quaerens intellectum

Fides quaerens intellectum means "faith seeking understanding" or "faith seeking intelligence". It is the theological method stressed by Augustine and Anselm of Canterbury in which one begins with belief in faith and on the basis of that faith moves on to further understanding of Christian truth. Anselm uses this expression for the first time in his Proslogion. It articulates the close relationship between faith and human reason. This is the key to Anselms theological thought and philosophical thinking. He would understand all things in faith. It means to understand intellectually what we ...

Hellenistic philosophy

Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy and Middle Eastern philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic period following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.

International Philosophical Bibliography

The International Philosophical Bibliography, also known in French as Repertoire bibliographique de la philosophie, is a bibliographic database covering publications on the history of philosophy and continental philosophy. The database comprises records of publications in over 30 languages. Annually, about 12.000 records are added. The indexes include, among other elements, over 84.000 names of authors, editors, translators, reviewers, and collaborators, as well as more than 3.000 commentaries on philosophical works. Since 1934, the IPB has been developed by the Higher Institute of Philoso ...

Toril Moi

Toril Moi is James B. Duke Professor of Literature and Romance Studies and Professor of English, Philosophy and Theatre Studies at Duke University. Moi is also the Director of the Center for Philosophy, Arts, and Literature at Duke. As an undergraduate, she attended University of Bergen, where she studied in the Literature Department. Previously she held positions as a lecturer in French at the University of Oxford and as Director of the Center for Feminist Research at the University of Bergen, Norway. She lived in Oxford, United Kingdom from 1979 to 1989. Moi lives in North Carolina. She ...

Moral rationalism

Moral rationalism, also called ethical rationalism, is a view in meta-ethics according to which moral principles are knowable a priori, by reason alone. Some prominent figures in the history of philosophy who have defended moral rationalism are Plato and Immanuel Kant. Perhaps the most prominent figure in the history of philosophy who has rejected moral rationalism is David Hume. Recent philosophers who have defended moral rationalism include Richard Hare, Christine Korsgaard, Alan Gewirth, and Michael Smith. Moral rationalism is similar to the rationalist version of ethical intuitionism; ...

Paradox

A paradox, also known as an antinomy, is a logically self-contradictory statement or a statement that runs contrary to ones expectation. It is a statement that, despite apparently valid reasoning from true premises, leads to a seemingly self-contradictory or a logically unacceptable conclusion. A paradox usually involves contradictory-yet-interrelated elements - that exist simultaneously and persist over time. In logic, many paradoxes exist which are known to be invalid arguments, but which are nevertheless valuable in promoting critical thinking, while other paradoxes have revealed errors ...

Philosophical ethology

Philosophical ethology is a field of multidisciplinary research which gathers natural sciences, social science, human studies and is dedicated to the issue of animal subjectivity. It is about an ontological concept needing a philosophical place rather than a descriptive issue. With precursors in the 19th century, it emerged in its current from in the 2010s.

Medium essentialism

Medium Essentialism is a philosophical theory stating that each artform has its own distinctive medium, and that the essence of such an artform is dependent on its particular medium. In practice, the theory argues that every artwork should manifest its essential properties, those which no other artform can employ. The theory relies on the presumption that every artform has a unique medium, and is divided into two main interpretations. The limitation’ interpretation of Medium Essentialism argues that, due to their medium, some artforms should be constrained in their aspirations. The product ...

Polanyi’s paradox

Polanyi’s paradox, named in honour of the British-Hungarian philosopher Michael Polanyi, is the theory that human knowledge of how the world functions and capability are, to a large extent, beyond our explicit understanding. The theory was articulated by Michael Polanyi in his book The Tacit Dimension in 1966, but it was economist David Autor that named it as Polanyi’s paradox in his 2014 research paper on" Polanyi’s Paradox and the Shape of Employment Growth”. Summarised in the slogan "We can know more than we can tell", Polanyi’s paradox is mainly to explain the cognitive phenomenon that ...

Preference

In psychology, economics and philosophy, a preference is a technical term usually used in relation to choosing between alternatives. For example, someone prefers A over B if they would rather choose A than B. Preference can also be used in insolvency terms.

Process philosophy

Process philosophy - also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism - identifies metaphysical reality with change. In opposition to the classical model of change as illusory or accidental, process philosophy regards change as the cornerstone of reality - the cornerstone of being thought of as becoming. Since the time of Plato and Aristotle, some philosophers have posited true reality as "timeless", based on permanent substances, while processes are denied or subordinated to timeless substances. If Socrates changes, becoming sick, Socrates is still the same the substance o ...

Projet de communaute philosophe

Projet de communaute philosophe is a book written by the French philosopher Victor dHupay, published in 1777.

Pseudophilosophy

According to Christopher Heumann, an 18th-century scholar, pseudo-philosophy has six characteristics: A preference for useless speculation It is immoral It appeals to tradition instead of reason It syncretises philosophy with superstition It has a preference for obscure and enigmatic language and symbolism It appeals merely to human authority According to Michael Oakeshott, pseudo-philosophy "is theorizing that proceeds partly within and partly outside a given mode of inquiry." Josef Pieper noted that there cannot be a closed system of philosophy, and that any philosophy that claims to hav ...

The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters

The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters is an etching by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya. Created between 1797 and 1799 for the Diario de Madrid, it is the 43rd of the 80 etchings making up the satirical Los Caprichos. Many suggest that the artist Goya depicts himself asleep amidst his drawing tools, his reason dulled by slumber, bedeviled by creatures that prowl in the dark. The work includes owls that may be symbols of folly and bats symbolizing ignorance. Implied in Goyas preparatory inscription, the artists nightmare reflects his view of Spanish society, which he portra ...

Truth

Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard. Truth is also sometimes defined in modern contexts as an idea of "truth to self", or authenticity. Truth is usually held to be opposite to falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also suggest a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy, art, theology, and science. Most human activities depend upon the concept, where its nature as a concept is assumed rather than being a subject of discussion; these ...

Virtue

Virtue is moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting collective and individual greatness. In other words, it is a behavior that shows high moral standards. Doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong. The opposite of virtue is vice. The four classic cardinal virtues in Christianity are temperance, prudence, courage or fortitude, and justice. Christianity derives the three theological virtues of faith, hope and love charity ...

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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