ⓘ Philosophical paradoxes ..

Argument from free will

The argument from free will, also called the paradox of free will or theological fatalism, contends that omniscience and free will are incompatible and that any conception of God that incorporates both properties is therefore inconceivable. See the various controversies over claims of Gods omniscience, in particular the critical notion of foreknowledge. These arguments are deeply concerned with the implications of predestination.

Buridan's bridge

Buridans Bridge is described by Jean Buridan, one of the most famous and influential philosophers of the Late Middle Ages, in his book Sophismata. It is a self-referential paradox that involves a proposition pronounced about an event that might or might not happen in the future.

Liberal paradox

The liberal paradox, also Sen paradox or Sens paradox, is a logical paradox proposed by Amartya Sen which purports to show that no social system can simultaneously always result in a type of economic efficiency known as Pareto efficiency, and be capable of functioning in any society whatsoever. be committed to a minimal sense of freedom, This paradox is contentious because it appears to contradict the classical liberal claim that markets are both Pareto efficient and respect individual freedoms. The paradox is similar in many respects to Arrows impossibility theorem and uses similar mathem ...

Mere addition paradox

The mere addition paradox, also known as the repugnant conclusion, is a problem in ethics, identified by Derek Parfit and discussed in his book Reasons and Persons. The paradox identifies the mutual incompatibility of four intuitively compelling assertions about the relative value of populations.

Newcomb's paradox

In philosophy and mathematics, Newcombs paradox, also referred to as Newcombs problem, is a thought experiment involving a game between two players, one of whom purports to be able to predict the future. Newcombs paradox was created by William Newcomb of the University of Californias Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. However, it was first analyzed in a philosophy paper by Robert Nozick in 1969, and appeared in the March 1973 issue of Scientific American, in Martin Gardners "Mathematical Games." Today it is a much debated problem in the philosophical branch of decision theory.

Omnipotence paradox

The omnipotence paradox is a family of paradoxes that arise with some understandings of the term omnipotent. The paradox arises, for example, if one assumes that an omnipotent being has no limits and is capable of realizing any outcome, even logically contradictory ideas such as creating square circles. A no-limits understanding of omnipotence such as this has been rejected by theologians from Thomas Aquinas to contemporary philosophers of religion, such as Alvin Plantinga. Atheological arguments based on the omnipotence paradox are sometimes described as evidence for atheism, though Chris ...

Paradox of analysis

The paradox of analysis is a paradox that concerns how an analysis can be both correct and informative. Although the problem takes its origin from the conflict in Platos Meno, it was formulated in its complete form by philosopher G. E. Moore in his book Principia Ethica, and first named by C. H. Langford in his 1942 article "The Notion of Analysis in Moores Philosophy".

Paradox of hedonism

The paradox of hedonism, also called the pleasure paradox, refers to the practical difficulties encountered in the pursuit of pleasure. For the hedonist, constant pleasure-seeking may not yield the most actual pleasure or happiness in the long run - or even in the short run, when consciously pursuing pleasure interferes with experiencing it. The utilitarian philosopher Henry Sidgwick was first to note in The Methods of Ethics that the paradox of hedonism is that pleasure cannot be acquired directly. Variations on this theme appear in the realms of ethics, philosophy, psychology, and economics.

Paradox of nihilism

The paradox of nihilism are the philosophically contradictory aspects of nihilism, particularly situations contesting nihilist perspectives on the nature and extent of subjectivity within a nihilist framework. There are a number of variations of this paradox.

Problem of evil

The problem of evil is the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil and suffering with an omnipotent, omnibenevolent, and omniscient God. Or as the first known presentation by the Greek philosopher Epicurus puts it: "Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then from whence comes evil?" Responses to the problem have traditionally been discussed under the heading of theodicy. Besides philosophy of religion, the problem of evil is also important to the field of theology ...

When a white horse is not a horse

When a white horse is not a horse is a famous paradox in Chinese philosophy. Around 300 BC, Gongsun Long wrote this dialectic analysis of the question "Can one legitimately assert white horse is not horse?", in a work now named for him, Gongsun Longzi, in a segment called the White Horse Dialogue ".

Zeno's paradoxes

Zenos paradoxes are a set of philosophical problems generally thought to have been devised by Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea to support Parmenides doctrine that contrary to the evidence of ones senses, the belief in plurality and change is mistaken, and in particular that motion is nothing but an illusion. It is usually assumed, based on Platos Parmenides, that Zeno took on the project of creating these paradoxes because other philosophers had created paradoxes against Parmenides view. Thus Plato has Zeno say the purpose of the paradoxes "is to show that their hypothesis that existences ar ...

Free and no ads
no need to download or install

Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

online intellectual game →