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GeoSUR

GeoSUR is a regional initiative led by spatial data producers in Latin America and the Caribbean to implement a regional geospatial network and to help establish the basis of a spatial data infrastructure in the region. GeoSUR supports the develo ...

Geotagged photograph

A geotagged photograph is a photograph which is associated with a geographical location by geotagging. Usually this is done by assigning at least a latitude and longitude to the image, and optionally altitude, compass bearing and other fields may ...

Geoweb

The concept of a Geospatial Web may have first been introduced by Dr. Charles Herring in his US DoD paper, An Architecture of Cyberspace: Spatialization of the Internet, 1994, U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. Dr. Herring pr ...

Global Earth Observation System of Systems

The Global Earth Observation System of Systems is being built by the Group on Earth Observations on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan running from 2005 to 2015. GEOSS seeks to connect the producers of environmental data and decision-supp ...

Global Map

Global Map is a set of digital maps that accurately cover the whole globe to express the status of global environment. It is developed through the cooperation of National Geospatial Information Authorities in the world. An initiative to develop G ...

Land administration

Land administration is the way in which the rules of land tenure are applied and made operational. Land administration, whether formal or informal, comprises an extensive range of systems and processes to administer. The processes of land adminis ...

Linear referencing

Linear referencing, also called linear reference system or linear referencing system, is a method of spatial referencing in engineering and construction, in which the locations of physical features along a linear element are described in terms of ...

List of GIS data sources

This is a list of GIS data sources that provide information sets that can be used in geographic information systems and spatial databases for purposes of geospatial analysis and cartographic mapping. This list categorizes the sources of interest.

OMB Circular A-16

OMB Circular A-16, revised August 19, 2002, is a Government circular that was created by the United States Office of Management and Budget to provide guidance for federal agencies that create, maintain or use spatial data directly or indirectly t ...

OpenLR

OpenLR is a royalty-free open standard for "procedures and formats for the encoding, transmission, and decoding of local data irrespective of the map" developed by TomTom. The format allows locations localised on one map to be found on another ma ...

Restrictions on geographic data in China

Due to national security concerns, the use of geographic information in the Peoples Republic of China is restricted to entities that obtain a special authorization from the administrative department for surveying and mapping under the State Counc ...

Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world. Satellite imaging companies sell images by licensing them to governments and businesses such as Apple ...

Spatial data infrastructure

A spatial data infrastructure is a data infrastructure implementing a framework of geographic data, metadata, users and tools that are interactively connected in order to use spatial data in an efficient and flexible way. Another definition is "t ...

Surveying and Mapping Act

The Surveying and Mapping Act was assented to by the President of Pakistan in May 2014 after being passed by the National Assembly in order to regulate geospatial data.

Volunteered geographic information

Volunteered geographic information is the harnessing of tools to create, assemble, and disseminate geographic data provided voluntarily by individuals. VGI is a special case of the larger phenomenon known as user-generated content, and allows peo ...

Highest unclimbed mountain

An unclimbed mountain is a mountain peak that has yet to be climbed to the top. Determining which unclimbed peak is highest is often a matter of controversy. In some parts of the world, surveying and mapping are still unreliable. There are no com ...

Alcohol-free zone

An alcohol-free zone is a geographic area, location or establishment where the public consumption and sale of alcoholic beverages is prohibited. Alcohol-free zones have been established in some areas to address problems with drinking- and binge d ...

Geographical zone

The five main latitude regions of the Earths surface comprise geographical zones, divided by the major circles of latitude. The differences between them relate to climate. They are as follows: The North frigid zone, between the Arctic Circle 66.5 ...

AAA Travel High School Challenge

The AAA Travel High School Challenge was an annual travel-themed scholarship competition run by the American Automobile Association, open to students in grades 9-12 in the fifty United States and the District of Columbia. First run in 2003 as par ...

Australian Geography Competition

The Australian Geography Competition is an Australia-wide competition run by the Royal Geographic Society of Queensland and the Australian Geography Teachers Association and sponsored by the National Geographic Channel. It tests the geographic kn ...

Geography Cup

The Geography Cup is an online, international competition between the United States and the United Kingdom, with the aim of determining which nation collectively knows more about geography. It was also intended to raise awareness of the importanc ...

United States Geography Olympiad

The United States Geography Championships, often abbreviated as USGC, formerly known as the United States Geography Olympiad, is a nationwide academic geography competition for primary and secondary school students in the United States. It was in ...

History of geography

The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups. In more recent developments, geography has become a distinct academic discipline. Geography derives f ...

Aethiopian Sea

Aethiopian, Æthiopian, Æthiopic or Ethiopian Sea or Ocean was the name given to the southern half of the Atlantic Ocean in classical geographical works. The name appeared in maps from ancient times up to the turn of the 19th century.

Antichthones

Antichthones, in geography, are those peoples who inhabit the antipodes, regions on opposite sides of the Earth. The word is compounded of the Greek ὰντὶ and χθών. Classical and Medieval Europe considered the Earth to be divided by the equator in ...

Atlantic World

The Atlantic World comprises the interactions among the peoples and empires bordering the Atlantic Ocean rim from the beginning of the Age of Discovery to the early 21st century. Atlantic history is split between three different contexts. transat ...

Bedford Level experiment

The Bedford Level experiment is a series of observations carried out along a six-mile length of the Old Bedford River on the Bedford Level of the Cambridgeshire Fens in the United Kingdom, during the 19th and early 20th centuries, to measure the ...

Buenaventura River (legend)

The non-existent Buenaventura River, alternatively San Buenaventura River, Rio Buenaventura, etc. was once believed to run from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean through the Great Basin region of what is now the western United States. The ...

History of cartography

The history of cartography traces the development of cartography, or mapmaking technology, in human history. Maps have been one of the most important human inventions for millennia. People have created and used maps to help them define, explain, ...

Chinese geography

The study of geography in China begins in the Warring States period. It expands its scope beyond the Chinese homeland with the growth of the Chinese Empire under the Han dynasty. It enters its golden age with the invention of the compass in the 1 ...

Contarini–Rosselli map

The Contarini–Rosselli map of 1506 was the first printed world map showing the New World. The Contarini–Rosselli map was designed by Giovanni Matteo Contarini and engraved by Francesco Rosselli. It is a copper-engraved map and was published in Ve ...

Frederick Cook

Frederick Albert Cook was an American explorer, physician, and ethnographer who claimed to have reached the North Pole on April 21, 1908. This was nearly a year before Robert Peary, who similarly claimed to have reached the North Pole on April 6, ...

Critical geography

Critical geography is theoretically informed geographical scholarship that seeks for social justice, liberation, and leftist politics. Critical geography is also used as an umbrella term for Marxist, feminist, postmodern, poststructural, queer, l ...

Early world maps

The earliest known world maps date to classical antiquity, the oldest examples of the 6th to 5th centuries BCE still based on the flat Earth paradigm. World maps assuming a spherical Earth first appear in the Hellenistic period. The developments ...

Environmental determinism

Environmental determinism is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories. Many scholars underscore that this approach supported colonialism and eurocentrism, and devalued ...

Erythraean Sea

The Erythraean Sea was a maritime designation of ancient Greek geography that always included the Gulf of Aden between Arabia Felix and the Horn of Africa and was frequently extended - as in the famous 1st-century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea - ...

Exploration of North America

The exploration of North America by non-indigenous people was a continuing effort to map and explore the continent of North America. It spanned centuries, and consisted of efforts by numerous people and expeditions from various foreign countries ...

Farther India

Farther India, or Ultraindia, is an old term, now rarely used, for Southeast Asia, seen in colonial days from Europe as the part of the Far East beyond the Indian subcontinent, but south of China. It refers to Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Thai ...

Four continents

Europeans in the 16th century divided the world into four continents: Africa, America, Asia and Europe. Each of the four continents was seen to represent its quadrant of the world - Europe in the north, Asia in the east, Africa in the south, and ...

Geography (Ptolemy)

The Geography, also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire. Originally written by Claudius Pto ...

Hesperia (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Hesperia may refer to the following characters and places: Hesperia, one of the Hesperides, in some versions e.g. Pseudo-Apollodorus the daughter of Hesperus Hesperia as "western land" is the ancient Greek name of Italy, also ...

Iberian cartography, 1400–1600

Cartography throughout the 14th-16th centuries played a significant role in the expansion of the kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula for a multitude of reasons. Primarily, the maps developed during this period served as navigational tools for marit ...

Inventing the Flat Earth

Inventing the Flat Earth is a book by historian Jeffrey Burton Russell debunking the notion that medieval Christians believed the earth was flat.

List of Graeco-Roman geographers

Pre-Hellenistic Classical Greece Hecataeus of Miletus Homer Herodotus Anaximander Massaliote Periplus Scylax of Caryanda 6th century BC Hellenistic period Dicaearchus died c. 285 BC Eratosthenes c. 276-194 BC Hipparchus c. 190-120 BC Posidonius c ...

Majorcan cartographic school

Majorcan cartographic school is the term coined by historians to refer to the collection of predominantly Jewish cartographers, cosmographers and navigational instrument-makers and some Christian associates that flourished in Majorca in the 13th, ...

Victor Adolphe Malte-Brun

He was born in Paris, France, the son of Conrad Malte-Brun, another geographer, of Danish origin, and founder of the Societe de Geographie. After having been professor of history in several colleges, he devoted himself especially to geographical ...

Possibilism (geography)

Possibilism in cultural geography is the theory that the environment sets certain constraints or limitations, but culture is otherwise determined by social conditions. In Cultural ecology Marshall Sahlins used this concept in order to develop alt ...

Principal Triangulation of Great Britain

The Principal Triangulation of Britain was the first high-precision trigonometric survey of the whole of Great Britain, carried out between 1791 and 1853 under the auspices of the Board of Ordnance. The aim of the survey was to establish precise ...

Quantitative revolution

The quantitative revolution was a paradigm shift that sought to develop a more rigorous and systematic methodology for the discipline of geography. It came as a response to the inadequacy of regional geography to explain general spatial dynamics. ...

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